Viabilidad de Comunidades Profesionales de Aprendizaje en sistemas educativos de bajo desempeño

Sergio Morales-Inga, Oswaldo Morales-Tristán

Resumen


Viability of Professional Learning Communities in Low-Performance Educational Systems

Viabilidade de comunidades de aprendizagem profissional em sistemas educativos de baixo desempenho

Las comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje (CPA) constituyen una de las estrategias de desempeño escolar más importantes. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las escuelas en las que se han aplicado pertenecen a sistemas educativos de alto desempeño, como los de Japón, Corea de Sur, Finlandia o Singapur, lo que deja por fuera la realidad educativa de América Latina. Mediante un estudio exploratorio, basado en observación etnográfica y entrevistas semiestructuradas, esta investigación vincula teoría y práctica para discutir la aplicabilidad de las CPA en escuelas públicas pertenecientes a sistemas educativos de bajo desempeño. Como conclusión, se halló que los componentes principales de las CPA (estructuras organizativas flexibles, liderazgos distribuidos, valores compartidos y culturas escolares colaborativas) están presentes, pero son precarios y no soportan la implementación de la estrategia.

Para citar este artículo / To reference this article / Para citar este artigo
Morales-Inga, S. y Morales-Tristán, O. (2020). Viabilidad de Comunidades Profesionales de Aprendizaje en sistemas educativos de bajo desempeño. Educación y Educadores, 23(1), 91-112. https://doi.org/10.5294/edu.2020.23.1.5

Recibido: 13/09/2018

Aceptado: 13/02/2020

Publicado: 13/04/2020


Palabras clave


Comunidades de aprendizaje; estructura organizativa; liderazgo; organización escolar; Perú

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Ahn, J. (2017). Taking a step to identify how to create professional learning communities –Report of a case study of a Korean public high school on how to create and sustain a school-based teacher professional learning community. International Education Series, 10(1), 82-92. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n1p82

Alayo, F. (2017). Debate por el currículo: Precisiones causaron estas reacciones. El Comercio. https://elcomercio.pe/peru/debate-curriculo-precisiones-causaron-reacciones-143942

Álvarez, G. (2006). El aprendizaje organizacional como eje de desarrollo en la organización escolar. Educación, 15(29), 7-34. http://revistas.pucp.edu.pe/index.php/educacion/article/view/2319

Álvarez, C. y San Fabián, J. (2012). La elección del estudio de caso en investigación educativa. Gazeta de Antropología, 28(1), 1-12. http://www.gazeta-antropologia.es/?p=101

Argote, L. (2011). Organizational learning research: Past, present and future. Management Learning, 42(4), 439-446. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350507611408217

Bellibas, M., Bulut, O. y Gedik, S. (2017). Investigating professional learning communities in Turkish schools: The effects of contextual factors. Professional Development in Education, 43(3), 353-374. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2016.1182937

Beltrán, A. y Seinfeld, J. (2013). La trampa educativa en el Perú: cuando la educación llega a muchos pero sirve a pocos. Lima: UP.

Bolívar, A. (2011). Aprender a liderar líderes: Competencias para un liderazgo directivo que promueva el liderazgo docente. Educar, 47(2), 253-275. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/Educar/article/view/248536

Buttram, J. y Farley-Ripple, E. (2016). The role of principals in professional learning communities. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(2), 192-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2015.1039136

Cadena-Chala, M. y Orcasitas-García, J. (2016). Comunidades de aprendizaje en el País Vasco: Caracterización y organización escolar. Educación y Educadores, 19(3), 373-391. https://doi.org/10.5294/edu.2016.19.3.4

Carpenter, D. (2015). School culture and leadership of professional learning communities. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(5), 682-694. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-04-2014-0046

Castillo, P., Puigdellivol, I. y Antúnez, S. (2017). El liderazgo compartido como factor de sostenibilidad del proyecto de comunidades de aprendizajes. Estudios Pedagógicos, 43(1), 41-59. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07052017000100003

Chen, P., Lee, C., Lin, H. y Zhang, C. (2016). Factors that develop effective professional learning communities in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 248-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148853

Cheng, X. y Wu, L. (2016). The affordances of teacher professional learning communities: A case study of a Chinese secondary school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 54-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.008

Cherrington, S. y Thornton, K. (2015). The nature of professional learning communities in New Zealand early childhood education: An exploratory study. Professional Development in Education, 41(2), 310-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2014.986817

Chuquilin, J. y Zagaceta, M. (2017). El currículo de la educación básica en tiempos de transformaciones: Los casos de México y Perú. Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa, 22(72), 109-134. http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1405-66662017000100109

Consejo Nacional de Educación (2006). Proyecto Educativo Nacional al 2021. Lima: CNE.

Cuenca, R. (2017). Moving toward professional development: The teacher reform in Peru (2012-2016). Lima: IEP.

Deal, T. y Peterson, K. (2016). Shaping school culture. California: Wiley.

Díaz, H. (2015). Formación docente en el Perú. Lima: Santillana.

DiPaola, M. y Hoy, W. (2015). Leadership and school quality. EE.UU.: Information Age Publishing.

Diamond, J. y Spillane, J. (2016). School leadership and management from a distributed perspective: A 2016 retrospective and prospective. Management in Education, 30(4), 147-154. https://doi.org/10.1177/0892020616665938

Dogan, S., Tatik, R. y Yurtseven, N. (2017). Professional learning communities assessment: Adaptation, internal validity, and multidimensional model testing in Turkish context. Educational Sciences: Theory y Practice, 17(4), 1075-1101. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1148355

DuFour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning community? Educational Leadership, 61(8), 6-11. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/What-Is-a-Professional-Learning-Community%C2%A2.aspx

DuFour, R. (2007). Professional learning communities: A bandwagon, an idea worth considering, or our best hope for high levels of learning? Middle School Journal, 39(1), 4-8. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ775771

El Comercio (2017a). Marilú Martens: “Currículo no se está implementando al ritmo propuesto”. Recuperado de https://elcomercio.pe/cade/curriculo-implementando-ritmo-propuesto-noticia-478183

El Comercio (2017b). Año escolar 2018: ¿cuándo empezarán clases en colegios públicos? Recuperado de https://elcomercio.pe/peru/ano-escolar-2018-empezaran-clases-colegios-publicos-noticia-476344

González, L. (2003). El poder de la organización informal en la gestión administrativa. Revista Educación, 27(1), 187-195. https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/educacion/article/view/3813

Gray, J., Kruse, S. y Tarter, J. (2015). Enabling school structures, collegial trust and academic emphasis: Antecedents of professional learning communities. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(6), 875-891. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143215574505

Guadalupe, C., León, J., Rodríguez, J. y Vargas, S. (2017). Estado de la educación en el Perú: Análisis y perspectivas de la Educación Básica. Lima: Grade, Forge.

Gutierez, S. (2016). Building a classroom-based professional learning community through lesson study: Insights from elementary school science teachers. Professional Development in Education, 42(5), 801-817. https://doi.org//10.1080/19415257.2015.1119709

Harris, A. y Jones, M. (2010). Professional learning communities and system improvement. Improving Schools, 13(2), 172-181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1365480210376487

Higgins, K. (2016). An investigation of professional learning communities in North Carolina school systems. Journal of Research Initiatives, 2(1), 1-21. https://digitalcommons.uncfsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=jri

Huffman, J. (2003). The role of shared values and vision in creating professional learning communities. NASSP Bulletin, 87(637), 21-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263650308763703

Hunter III, S. (2015). Combining theoretical perspectives on the organizational structure–performance relationship. Journal of Organization Design, 4(2), 24-37. https://doi.org/10.7146/jod.16781

Jopen, G., Gómez, W. y Olivera, H. (2014). Sistema educativo peruano. Lima: PUCP.

Kruse, S. y Johnson, B. (2017). Tempering the normative demands of professional learning communities with the organizational realities of life in schools. Educational Management Administration y Leadership, 45(4), 588-604. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143216636111

La República (2017). Minedu presentó estrategia para garantizar una educación de calidad en el 2021. Recuperado de http://larepublica.pe/sociedad/1150418-minedu-presento-estrategia-para-garantizar-una-educacion-de-calidad-en-el-2021

Lai, E. y Cheung, D. (2015). Enacting teacher leadership: the role of teachers in bringing about change. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(5), 673-692. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143214535742

Lam, Y. (2005). School organizational structures: Effects on teacher and student learning. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(4), 387-401. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230510605432

Lee, M. y Kim, J. (2016). The emerging landscape of school-based professional learning communities in South Korean schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 266-284. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148854

Leithwood, K. (2009). ¿Cómo liderar nuestras escuelas? Santiago: Área de Educación Fundación Chile.

Martins, A. (2016). Pruebas PISA: ¿cuáles son los países que tienen la mejor educación del mundo? ¿Y cómo se ubica América Latina? BBC Mundo. http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-38211248

Ministerio de Educación (2003). Ley General de Educación. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2012). Marco de buen desempeño docente. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2013). La gestión descentralizada de la educación. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2015a). Marco del buen desempeño del directivo. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2015b). Manual de gestión escolar. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2016a). El impulso de una carrera: política de revalorización docente en el Perú. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2016b). Semáforo escuela: manual del monitor. Lima: Minedu.

Ministerio de Educación (2017). Currículo Nacional de la Educación Básica. Lima: Minedu.

Morales, S. y Morales, O. (2018). Comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje: De la gestión empresarial a la gestión educativa. Revista Peruana de Investigación Educativa, 10, 99-125. https://revistas.siep.org.pe/index.php/RPIE/article/view/89

Moreano, G. (coord.) (2017). El Perú en PISA 2015. Informe nacional de resultados. Lima: Minedu.

Mulford, B. y Silins, H. (2010). Organizational learning in schools. En P. Peterson, E. Baker y B. McGaw (eds.), International encyclopedia of education (pp. 142-150). Oxford: Elsevier.

OCDE - Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (2016). Avanzando hacia una mejor educación para Perú. Lima: UP.

Olivier, D. y Huffman, J. (2016). Professional learning community process in the United States. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 32(2), 301-317. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148856

Pang, N. y Wang, T. (2016). Professional learning communities: Research and practices across six educational systems in the Asia-Pacific region. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 193-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148848

Pang, N., Wang, T. y Leung, Z. (2016). Educational reforms and the practices of professional learning community in Hong Kong primary schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 231-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148852

Peterson, K. y Deal, T. (2009). The shaping school culture fieldbook. San Francisco: Wiley.

Pirela, L. y Sánchez, M. (2009). Cultura y aprendizaje organizacional en instituciones de Educación Básica. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 15(1), 175-188. http://ve.scielo.org/scielo.php?pid=S1315-95182009000100013&script=sci_arttext

Popp, J. y Goldman, S. (2016). Knowledge building in teacher professional learning communities: Focus of meeting matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 347-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.06.007

Qiao, X., Yu, S. y Zhang, L. (2018). A review of research on professional learning communities in mainland China (2006-2015). Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(5), 713-728. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143217707523

Rule, P. y John, V. (2015). A necessary dialogue: Theory in case study research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 14(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406915611575

Rutherford, C. (2006). Teacher leadership and organizational structure: The implications of restructured leadership in an Edison school. Journal of Educational Change, 7(1-2), 59-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-006-0013-4

Sai, X. y Siraj, S. (2015). Professional learning community in education: Literature review. The Online Journal of Quality in Higher Education, 2(2), 65-78. https://www.tojqih.net/journals/tojqih/articles/v02i02/

Salazar-Morales, D. (2018) Sermons, carrots or sticks? Explaining successful policy implementation in a low performance institution. Journal of Education Policy, 33(4), 457-487. http://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2017.1378823

Salleh, H. (2016). Facilitation for professional learning community conversations in Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 285-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148855

Sandín, M. (2003). Investigación cualitativa en educación. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.

Sigurðardóttir, A. (2010). Professional learning community in relation to school effectiveness. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(5), 395-412. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2010.508904

Sjoer, E. y Meirink, J. (2016). Understanding the complexity of teacher interaction in a teacher professional learning community. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 110-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2014.994058

Sutton, P. y Shouse, A. (2016). Building a culture of collaboration in schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 97(7), 69-73. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721716641653

Svanbjörnsdóttir, B., Macdonald, A. y Frímannsson, G. (2016a). Views of learning and a sense of community among students, paraprofessionals and parents in developing a school culture towards a professional learning community. Professional Development in Education, 42(4), 589-609. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2015.1047037

Svanbjörnsdóttir, B., Macdonald, A. y Frímannsson, G. (2016b). Teamwork in establishing a professional learning community in a new Icelandic school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 60(1), 90-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2014.996595

Tam, A. (2015a). The role of a professional learning community in teacher change: A perspective from beliefs and practices. Teachers and Teaching, 21(1), 22-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.928122

Tam, A. (2015b). Exploring teachers’ beliefs about teacher learning in professional learning communities and their influence on collegial activities in two departments. Compare, 45(3), 422-444. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2013.872025

Vanblaere, B. y Devos, G. (2016). Relating school leadership to perceived professional learning community characteristics: A multilevel analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 57, 26-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.03.003

Vanblaere, B. y Devos, G. (2018). The role of departmental leadership for professional learning communities. Educational Administration Quarterly, 54(1), 85-114. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X17718023

Vescio, V., Ross, D. y Adams, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2007.01.004

Villalobos, M. (2017). ¿Cuál es la situación de los colegios privados en el Perú? El Comercio. https://elcomercio.pe/economia/negocios/situacion-colegios-privados-peru-162820

Wang, T. (2016). School leadership and professional learning community: Case study of two senior high schools in Northeast China. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 202-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148849

Watson, C. (2014). Effective professional learning communities? The possibilities for teachers as agents of change in schools. British Educational Research Journal, 40(1), 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3025

Wennergren, A. y Blossing, U. (2017). Teachers and students together in a professional learning community. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(1), 47-59. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2015.1066441

Wong, J. (2010). What makes a professional learning community possible? A case study of a Mathematics department in a junior secondary school of China. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(2), 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-010-9080-6

Woods, P. (1987). La escuela por dentro: La etnografía en la investigación educativa. Barcelona: Paidós.

Yon, D. (2003). Highlights and overview of the history of educational ethnography. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 441-429. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.32.061002.093449

Zhang, J. y Pang, N. (2016). Exploring the characteristics of professional learning communities in China: A mixed-method study. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(1), 11-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0228-3

Zhang, J., Yuan, R. y Yu, S. (2017). What impedes the development of professional learning communities in China? Perceptions from leaders and frontline teachers in three schools in Shanghai. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 45(2), 219-237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143215617945




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5294/edu.2020.23.1.5



Copyright (c) 2020 Educación y Educadores

URL de la licencia: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es

Indexada en: SciELORedalycHINARIPublindex (B), REDIB, EBSCO-Fuente Académica, Ulrich's, Google AcadémicoDialnetCLASELatindexBiblioteca Digital OEIProQuest - Education Journals.

Correo electrónico: educacion.educadores@unisabana.edu.co
Canje: canje.biblioteca@unisabana.edu.co